CSCL exam


  1. Elaboration pro- and counter-arguments on the relevance of the scripting approach to CSCL

It is suggested that scripting can support learners to reach and go beyond the Zone of Proximal Development, foster collaborative interactions that lead to productive transitivity among learners which is one of the ultimate goals of CSCL. Besides, scripting can:

  • Allow process oriented instruction
  • Alleviate coordination of the learning process
  • Foster awareness of learners about the scripting.

However, scripting approach also has been critiqued. Two common problems are under-scripting and over-scripting. In under-scripting situation, learners are not supported enough with appropriate tools and scaffolds, therefore they can not reach or go beyond the ZDP. In contrast, over-scripting occurs when the scripts are too rigid, and inflexible. This situation can dampen learners’ motivation; learners don’t have enough space to self-regulate and to proceed learning process; and this can hinder activities and interactions that leads to less engagement between learners, therefore affects to CSCL outcomes.

  1. Define concepts internal script and micro script
  • Internal script: culturally shared, fixed values of a community or in a specific environment settings.
  • Micro script: scripting instruction as a guidance for learners follow in CSCL which has following components:
    • Learning activities
    • Sequencing
    • Role distribution (such as: composer, captain, critic, contributor, etc)
    • Type of presentation (by teacher, writing on board or through postings on learning platforms, etc)


  1. Provide one script example

Peer-review script:

Your task is to examine and make joint conclusion about the possible benefits of using scripting approach in CSCL. You are divided into dyads. In each dyad, one will be contributor and one will be critic. Based on provided materials and resources, the contributor will find and present answers/ solutions for the task and then the critic will critique based on the contributor’s opinions. You can rotate turns after examining one aspect/ feature of scripting approach. You have 45 minutes to complete the discussion and then 15 minutes to present about the joint conclusion.



  1. Elaboration pro- and counter-arguments on relevance of the role of motivation and emotions in CSCL.

As motivation is likely fuel for people to keep doing things (engaging, maintaining or hindering activities) and emotions are reactions to something, motivation and emotions play an important role in CSCL. Recent studies showed that motivation and emotions are essential and main sources that lead to learners’ engagement and participation in CSCL. Because in CSCL settings, the differences of learners’ characteristics, task interpretations, personal preferences, cognitive and metacognitive skill levels, etc, can create many challenges for learners. These will definitely affect to learners’ motivation and emotions so that can promote or hinder learners’ self-, shared-, and co-regulation.

  1. Define following concepts:
    1. Self-regulated learning

Self-regulated learning refers to the process in which a learner set up his own goals, plan, monitor, control and evaluate his learning process to attain the goals.

  1. Volition

Volition has been considered as a term of regulation of motivation. With volition, learners maintain willingness to always push learning process forwards without being influenced from the changes of emotions and other effects. This can be divided into overt volition and covert volition.

  1. Regulation of cognition

This term refers to a learner’s ability to regulate cognition during learning process. The learner may provoke prior knowledge, then continuously examine, compare, combine or supplement with the ongoing knowledge during learning in order to make knowledge convergence and achieve learning outcomes.

  1. Examples of how the regulation of motivation and emotions can be supported in CSCL.

The regulation of motivation and emotions can be supported in CSCL by:

  • Helping learners identify and specify the sources of emotions and motivation that can promote or hinder their engagement in individual and group level.
  • Teacher’s interference or scaffolding in group forming, task assigning, socially sharing, etc
  • Technology with a variety of functions and expressions.


  1. Elaboration of pro- and counter-arguments on relevance of metacognition in CSCL.

Metacognition is one of the most important aspect in CSCL and is an essential aim that teachers/ educational designers wish their learners can achieve during learning processes. Individual metacognition and socially shared metacognition can help promote group discussion and social interactions, reduce the feelings of difficulty among group members and therefore can lead to progress in joint solutions.

However, there can be possibility of having conflicts between individual and socially shared metacognition and between individual metacognition levels that lead the discussion into unwanted directions, or increase the feelings of difficulty of the person who is responsible for posting the metacognitive messages.

  1. Define concepts of:
    1. Metacognition

Metacognition is simply understood as “thinking of thinking”. Metacognition is considered as an ultimate goal in CSCL in which learners are conscious about how to think during the task or problem solving. Once being aware of this, learners can purposely engage and promote collaborative learning process that leads to the better quality of the discourse and problem-solving.

  1. Socially shared metacognition

Socially shared metacognition is the term that occurs in CSCL when a group member pose a metacognitive message that intentionally aims to change, interrupt or promote the ongoing process of carrying out of the task then the other group members take the initiative and then can consider other aspects/ features of the problem that lead to the progress in discussion and problem-solving.

  1. Examples how metacognition can be supported in CSCL.

Metacognition can be supported in CSCL by teacher’ interference in a certain or necessary point during learning process through asking questions, reasoning the situation and providing hints, prompts, etc; or by assigning a “leader” among group members who is conscious with the socially shared metacognition and has ability to pose a metacognitive message in appropriate time points to promote/ change/ or interrupt group discussion.


Problem-solving case: 2nd meeting – collecting ideas from kids

                     Group members are discussing with 8 representative kids from 4 classes of Appo cell

As being arranged last week, this morning our group had a meeting with 8 kids from the training school to collect their ideas about the learning-playing Appo cell.

It is very impressive with a vast numerous ideas from children who are representatives of 80 children of the Appo Cell. They in turns presented their ideas, wishes and expectations about the “living room” or the common place for working and learning. We also discussed about several problems available in the Cell such as: cloth hanging shelves are very inconvenient, some of them even hit their head when taking clothes; the cell space is now small and messy, etc. Kids also shared their concerns about how to keep the common place clean, functional and less noisy. I was particularly impressed by an idea came from a little and shy boy: he said that we should consider noise issue when designing. He expects the environment will be noise-proof or the way of design will minimize effects of noise causing by multiple activities.

                                                   Several ideas from kids

We really had a great and effective meeting. A teacher of a 4th grade class was also very helpful and supportive to arrange the discussion between us and the kids and provided us a lot of useful information. We took note and pictures and are going to arrange a meeting next week for proceeding our design project.

Releasing penguins to the wild

Today has been my happiest day ever. 11 African penguins was released last Thursday in Boulders Beach, in an effort of rehabilitating them of SANCCOB. I was moved a lot to be participated in this release – my effort during 3 winter months taking care of them was rewarded. The moment when seeing them being released has been the happiest ever: after few munites confusing in front of the spacious ocean – or the new freedom, they started following each other and heading to the sea, facing up first big waves after a while in captivity. HOME finally! Good luck my 11 brave penguins – you guys had been given another chance to fight for a brighter life. I will follow you anytime – penguins – no matter where I am and where you are. ^^

Release process:


Final check


Packing penguins


Ready to go


Uploading to the van


Release team




Confusing in front of the freedom


Peace at home!


I have been taking the seabird rehabilitation internship in Sanccob. However, because my major is related to education, I asked Margurite – the volunteer coordinator to be involved in education department. She arranged to let me in, so great! And from my sixth week working in here, I have involved in several educational activities that are interesting and beneficial for my studying and career as well.

My support in the education department is including:

  • Assisting educational activities (school visit, lesson teaching, volunteer training and supervising)
  • Filming and producing several videos related to seabird behaviors and rehabilitation for serving educational purposes

With available knowledge and skills learnt from LET programme, I have applied those effectively into my work. I produced around 10 short videos about penguins and seabirds’ behaviors and SANCCOB’s activities such as: Feeding penguins, Swimming time, Preening, In Nursery Unit, In Intensive Care Unit, Nesting, Tubing, Washing, Penguin Release, etc. Unfortunately, because of the copy right issue, I can not public to show you some products that I have created.

And here is an extract of my diary of assisting an educational activity:

Today, I helped Tamy – the Sanccob’ education manager in teaching a lesson about African penguins and seabirds for mental disabled children in a special school named “Boulvei School”. We had around 30 students.



Our teaching tools are including: two cloth penguin costumes, penguin coloring pictures and 6 specimens (adult African penguin, blue African penguin, rockhopper penguin, kelp gull, hartlaub gull, and commarant). Tamy’s teaching was so great, funny and interesting. At the beginning, she introduced herself and me, then about Sanccob. After that, using the 6 specimens, she introduced African penguins and common seabirds in Cape Town to the kids – their appearances and remarkable characteristics; tried to let them know the differences between Adult and Blue African penguin; between kelp gull and hartlaub gull. Then, the focus was on African penguins. She invited two volunteers to go on stage and pretend to be penguins. She gave questions to the class to describe the African penguin, at the same time she put each part of the penguin costumes on a volunteer (I helped to put on another volunteer) after every answer from the kids (Which is missing – a head? A back? A belly? Two foot?…) until the volunteer was decorated as a penguin. When the two “fake” penguins were ready, she guided those two penguins to mimic the real ones with jumping and moving and flapping in very funny and cute ways. The class was continueing with coloring time. The kids were grouped in every 5 and then colored an African penguin. They were very creative in coloring and drawing more surroundings the penguin such as rock, soil, fish, sun, clouds, plants, flowers, even the South Africa flag. At the end, Tamy let the kids know where African penguins live (only 2 countries in the world including South Africa and Namibia) and repeated basic information about penguins and seabirds that they were taught during the class. The lesson was simple because the audience was mental disable children. From my observation, I would say it was fun and successful.



Giáo dục và tư duy tự nhiên – Giáp Văn Dương

Học Thế Nào


Thời gian gần đây, nhiều nước châu Á như Singapore, Hàn Quốc, Trung Quốc… đã tiến hành hoặc kêu gọi tiến hành cải cách giáo dục với lý do cần nâng cao tinh sáng tạo của học sinh châu Á nhằm cạnh tranh với học sinh Âu-Mỹ trong thời đại của kinh tế tri thức. Tuy chưa có một nghiên cứu định lượng cụ thể, nhưng học sinh các nước châu Á thường được đánh giá là “ít sáng tạo” so với học sinh cùng lứa Âu Mỹ. Nhận định này không chỉ lan truyền trong giới phụ huynh và giáo viên mà còn cả trong giới làm chính sách. Để minh họa điều này, người ta thường dẫn ra những ví dụ kinh điển như Microsoft, Google, Facebook, Apple… kèm theo nhận định: những công ty độc sáng như vậy không thể ra đời tại châu Á. Lý do…

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A happy working day

Today was a happy working day. It is my first time to experience working in ICU (intensive care unit) and my duty is to take care of ICU pen. There is only four penguins, 3 adults and 1 juvenile today but I had struggled with them because I worked alone to do everything for them in a day.

My day began at 8. I was informed that I was going to work in ICU with Theresa – my supervisor and Albert – my mentor. They are very friendly and helpful. Theresa is Canadian, does 3 month internship in seabird rehabilitation, same as me, and she did volunteering in Sanccob few years ago, now she has been back and continued helping seabirds. How nice she is! And Albert, he is an awesome mentor, I would say. He is South African, white, very impressive with a very long beard and an ear-ring with a mỏ neo image on it. Yesterday I asked him to train me giving tablets to penguins. This morning he did teaching me to do so. He seems always patient, calm and warm. He explained very well about the lessons and many questions from me. I have noticed that in some urgent or difficult cases (birds or penguins were in very bad situation because of the volunteers’ fault, for example), he has been very calm, tried to comfort the volunteers and solved the problems quickly. And after all, he, even seems quite cold and less talkative, always smiles and welcomes volunteers coming to ask him favors or questions.

Happy moment with penguins

I put on the uniform for working including one oilskin, one towel, two arm guards and one left-handed glove. All uniform stuff is needed to protect myself from bird’s bites and dirts. The towel is used for wipe out hands and birds.

To begin with work in ICU pen, I check the list of things needed to be done with birds. The list showed me about feeding, tubing, medicating schedulte of birds within a day. There were 4 penguins needed to be taken care today. At 8, I gave darrows and medications to 4 penguins. I already experienced working with adults but this is the first time I worked with many adults at the same time, and alone (normally, in normal pen, we have 2-3 people working together). Aldult penguins are very strong, aggressive and their bites are always very sharp, painful. And in ICU, those guys are much more aggressive because they are sick. We use the word “aweful” to describe those guys. To give darrow (a kind of syrup with water to supplement nutrient for birds) I have to use a srynge and a tube. (The darrows were prepared by Generals department before hand (were filled up into srynges). When I need them, I just grab from Generals, warm it up by hot water in winter time.) Normally, the first step is to pick up the bird. The way is to hold the bird’s left flipper with the left hand protected with glove. Then quickly using the right hand to catch the bird’s head. After that, using the left hand to put into the bird’s belly. Finally, picking up the bird with two hands in the same position, holding the bird close to our body. With adult guys, you have to do it very quickly and firmly, otherwise you are easily biten. Well, when I already controll the bird, I sit down on a special chair designed to work with birds, I put the bird in the middle of my two legs, keep him firmly. Then, I openned his beak, put my two fingers (pointing finger and middle finger) between his beak, look into his mouth. There is a breathing hole inside bird’s mouth, I have to always avoid that hole when doing everything: tubing, giving medications. I try to put the tube as deep as possible (around 15 centimetres) through his throat, then srynge the darrow as quick as possible to avoid stressing the bird too much. You can imagine how frustrating the bird feels when it is put long tube inside his throat. Sometimes, the bird reacts strongly, so I have to be strong enough to keep him standing nicely so that the srynge process can go smoothly. If the bird needs liquid medication, I will add that medication into darrow, then do the same. If the bird needs tablets, I have to open his beak, put the tablets deep inside his mouth to make sure that he can swallow it. And never forget to avoid the breathing hole. Otherwise, the bird can be hurt, even died because of the hole’s damage. After giving medications at around 8.20, I moved the birds to clean place and started cleaning the pen. After medicating, some birds need to be nebbed for additional treatment. At 9.30, I swim the birds in around 10 minutes. I always enjoy watching them swimming. They are always needed to force swimming before feeding time. The feeding time came at 10. I prepared 8 whole fishes in 10 minutes before 10 (in the morning, half of the fish is medicated with tablets inside fish’s mouth). Each of penguin normally feeds 2 fishes. There are some free feeders, and forced feeders. To force feeding birds, I have to open their beak, put whole fish inside their mouth, make sure they can swallow it easily. It is always very happy seeing the bird can swallow the fish nicely and easily. I was done feeding my 4 guys at 10.10. After feeding, I used pipe water to sray birds to make sure there is no dirt from fish meat staying on birds’ feather. Birds need at least hour relaxing after feeding. During that time, I went to the office upstair to do bird card to keep monitoring birds. At 12, I gave water to them. The prcess is the same with giving darrow. Then at 13, I gave them Formula (medicated fish yogurt) to supplement more nutrients and vitamins. At 14, feeding again. At 16, giving darrows and medications. At 17, giving Formula again. In the rest of time, I cleaned pen, did bird card, prepared list – bird working schedule for tomorrow and helped Theresa to do her jobs. Albert and Theresa agreed that I had been successful with my first working day at ICU and worked alone in a pen. I am so happy about that. I did leart a lot more today, took one further step with my work, and I was appreciated. At the end of day, I said sorry and thank you to my birds because of their sufferings and cooperation.


ICU crates

Besides, I helped Theresa and Albert in ICU crates, where many of sick and injured birds are kept in crates and given special care. I was so sorry and sad seeing a penguin with a very bid injure in his belly. He was surgeried and his belly was sewed by cotton thread. He breaths very heavily. So sorry for him. I prayed and chanted for him this evening. I do hope that he will be fine and get recovery soon. I have thought about him a lot seen I saw him in that situation, confirm myself that I should and must do more and more to help, to save penguins, to save animals, to save nature and this life. I promise: no more complaints, no more blame, no more useless thinkings. Just keep fighting, helping, and living this life bravely. There are too many things needed to do, to help and to experience. Would you like to be with me? ^^


With my great mentor – Albert

My Internship – working at a seabird hospital in Cape Town, South Africa

I have been in Cape Town, South Africa since the beginning of June, 2015 for doing the 3-month seabird rehabilitation internship in SANCCOB. My main work is about taking care of penguins and different kinds of seabirds and supporting the education department…

Winter in Cape Town, eventhough it is quite cold but pleasant and lovely. I often wake up at 6.45 in the morning, have breakfast at 7 and start walking to workplace at 7.30. It takes around 20 minutes from the guest house On Briza where I am living to Sanccob. There are two possible ways to get there but I often take the safer one, which is through a mall, a police station with very crowded people in the early mornings in week days. And through that route, it is always clear to see Table Mountain and walk aside of the Table Bay Nature Reserve. Walking almost one hour a day is really good for exercising and relaxing, I have thought a lot about life, about nature, about ourselves during those particular journeys.

Table Mountain

Sanccob is located in Table View, aside the Table Bay Nature Reserve and is an international hospital of seabirds. This is quite famous with many successful stories about saving African penguins from oil disaster. The hospital began its journey at around 1960 and there have been many many volunteers all over the world coming to help saving seabirds here within more than four decades. (More details: SANCCOB (The Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds) is a leading marine non-profit organization with a vision to conserve seabirds and other sea-life, especially threatened species such as the African penguin. As the mandated government rehabilitation authority in South Africa, SANCCOB protects and treats seabirds affected by major and chronic oil pollution, and shares its specialist skills with the international community, such as providing services in Africa, the Indian Ocean region, and the Sub-Antarctic. Through its partnership in the Chick Bolstering Project chicks hand-reared at SANCCOB contribute towards research and expertise to hand-rear chicks from eggs is being developed in the Chick Rearing Unit. SANCCOB’s research focuses on improving knowledge that will improve the conservation of seabirds in the wild, and improve our ability to care for seabirds during their rehabilitation process.)

It is not too large area, with around 2 hectars. The most remarkable area in Sanccob is Home Pen – being considered as 5 star Hotel for Penguins – where, if you are a penguin, you can be served with fish everyday as much as you want ^^. Home Pen is a home to many of permenant penguins, comarrants, and sea gulls. There is a swimming pool in the middle of Home Pen, surrouding is full of rocks, trees, and faked rocks enabling penguins to nest. There is also many toys for those birds entertaining such as: rubber balls hanging up by strings (I almost couldnt stop laughing when seeing a penguin who kick a ball and run around to chase it, so cute and funny), plastic rounds, buoy balls, etc. Surroundings Home Pen are 10 pens which are used in many functions. Pen 1 and Aviary are for keeping flying birds (Pen 1 is for weak and sick flying birds and Aviary is for flying birds who are on the process to be released). Pen 2 is for penguins who are from Nursery or Intensive Caring Unit (some of them are from chicks that had been incubated and hatched in Chick Rearing Unit and brought up around 1-2 months in Nursery; some are from Intensive Caring Unit – the place for taking care of oiled or sick birds). Pen 3 is for stronger penguins with red tags (tagged in wings) who are almost ready for being released.  Pen 4 to 9, and Pen A to G are used for different purposes including placing NEB machine, storing mats – crates – pen dividers – boxes, cleaning mats & crates, putting extra birds in necessary cases, etc. Generals is a place for doing laundry, preparing food, storing medicine and other stuff. There is a place called Washbay for washing oiled birds and placing upcoming birds. Besides, the office rooms include education and training room, reception, administration, admission, surgery and volunteer coordinator. There are three important units in here that I mentioned above: CRU – Chick Rearning Unit, ICU – Intensive Caring Unit and Nursery. Well, so that is a general image about Sanccob.

I have been doing internship in Seabird Rehabilitation here for 3 months. My working day is often started at 8am and ended at 5pm. Here is the list of what I am supposed to do:

  • Cleaning of bird pens and swimming pools
  • Handling and feeding of seabirds
  • Hydrating/tubing seabirds and administering tablets
  • Assist in the Intensive Care Unit
  • Holding birds for washing and rinsing
  • Supervising bird enclosures and other volunteers
  • Assist education team during curriculum aligned onsite and outreach lessons and activities for learners and groups
  • Assist education team during private tours for learners and groups

It is me feeding penguins ^^

Today, I worked in Nursery Unit. There was 29 penguin chicks in Nursery Unit today. My supervisor is Azola, she is South African and she has been working in Sanccob since last September. She had been always busy with handling, feeding, tubing, medicating those chicks all of the day. I assisted her to do general jobs. At 8, I entered in Nursery room. I had to embed my feet into medicated water to be pasteurized, then wear a pair of yellow crocs to get in. After Azola checked and nebbed chicks, I helped her to carry chicks go outside and started cleaning the room. After one night, chicks produce a battle field of shit and dirts. I took off mats to the cleaning station and sheets and towels to the washing machine. Then I mopped the floor, sprayed and wiped the whole room. For the rest of day, I did laundry, prepared fish and medicine, washed dishes and stuff, cleaned again and again. My day was so busy but I really enjoyed. Azola is a good and kind supervisor. She appreciated my assist and finished her job very well.