- Elaboration pro- and counter-arguments on the relevance of the scripting approach to CSCL
It is suggested that scripting can support learners to reach and go beyond the Zone of Proximal Development, foster collaborative interactions that lead to productive transitivity among learners which is one of the ultimate goals of CSCL. Besides, scripting can:
- Allow process oriented instruction
- Alleviate coordination of the learning process
- Foster awareness of learners about the scripting.
However, scripting approach also has been critiqued. Two common problems are under-scripting and over-scripting. In under-scripting situation, learners are not supported enough with appropriate tools and scaffolds, therefore they can not reach or go beyond the ZDP. In contrast, over-scripting occurs when the scripts are too rigid, and inflexible. This situation can dampen learners’ motivation; learners don’t have enough space to self-regulate and to proceed learning process; and this can hinder activities and interactions that leads to less engagement between learners, therefore affects to CSCL outcomes.
- Define concepts internal script and micro script
- Internal script: culturally shared, fixed values of a community or in a specific environment settings.
- Micro script: scripting instruction as a guidance for learners follow in CSCL which has following components:
- Learning activities
- Role distribution (such as: composer, captain, critic, contributor, etc)
- Type of presentation (by teacher, writing on board or through postings on learning platforms, etc)
- Provide one script example
Your task is to examine and make joint conclusion about the possible benefits of using scripting approach in CSCL. You are divided into dyads. In each dyad, one will be contributor and one will be critic. Based on provided materials and resources, the contributor will find and present answers/ solutions for the task and then the critic will critique based on the contributor’s opinions. You can rotate turns after examining one aspect/ feature of scripting approach. You have 45 minutes to complete the discussion and then 15 minutes to present about the joint conclusion.
MOTIVATION AND EMOTIONS
- Elaboration pro- and counter-arguments on relevance of the role of motivation and emotions in CSCL.
As motivation is likely fuel for people to keep doing things (engaging, maintaining or hindering activities) and emotions are reactions to something, motivation and emotions play an important role in CSCL. Recent studies showed that motivation and emotions are essential and main sources that lead to learners’ engagement and participation in CSCL. Because in CSCL settings, the differences of learners’ characteristics, task interpretations, personal preferences, cognitive and metacognitive skill levels, etc, can create many challenges for learners. These will definitely affect to learners’ motivation and emotions so that can promote or hinder learners’ self-, shared-, and co-regulation.
- Define following concepts:
- Self-regulated learning
Self-regulated learning refers to the process in which a learner set up his own goals, plan, monitor, control and evaluate his learning process to attain the goals.
Volition has been considered as a term of regulation of motivation. With volition, learners maintain willingness to always push learning process forwards without being influenced from the changes of emotions and other effects. This can be divided into overt volition and covert volition.
- Regulation of cognition
This term refers to a learner’s ability to regulate cognition during learning process. The learner may provoke prior knowledge, then continuously examine, compare, combine or supplement with the ongoing knowledge during learning in order to make knowledge convergence and achieve learning outcomes.
- Examples of how the regulation of motivation and emotions can be supported in CSCL.
The regulation of motivation and emotions can be supported in CSCL by:
- Helping learners identify and specify the sources of emotions and motivation that can promote or hinder their engagement in individual and group level.
- Teacher’s interference or scaffolding in group forming, task assigning, socially sharing, etc
- Technology with a variety of functions and expressions.
- Elaboration of pro- and counter-arguments on relevance of metacognition in CSCL.
Metacognition is one of the most important aspect in CSCL and is an essential aim that teachers/ educational designers wish their learners can achieve during learning processes. Individual metacognition and socially shared metacognition can help promote group discussion and social interactions, reduce the feelings of difficulty among group members and therefore can lead to progress in joint solutions.
However, there can be possibility of having conflicts between individual and socially shared metacognition and between individual metacognition levels that lead the discussion into unwanted directions, or increase the feelings of difficulty of the person who is responsible for posting the metacognitive messages.
- Define concepts of:
Metacognition is simply understood as “thinking of thinking”. Metacognition is considered as an ultimate goal in CSCL in which learners are conscious about how to think during the task or problem solving. Once being aware of this, learners can purposely engage and promote collaborative learning process that leads to the better quality of the discourse and problem-solving.
- Socially shared metacognition
Socially shared metacognition is the term that occurs in CSCL when a group member pose a metacognitive message that intentionally aims to change, interrupt or promote the ongoing process of carrying out of the task then the other group members take the initiative and then can consider other aspects/ features of the problem that lead to the progress in discussion and problem-solving.
- Examples how metacognition can be supported in CSCL.
Metacognition can be supported in CSCL by teacher’ interference in a certain or necessary point during learning process through asking questions, reasoning the situation and providing hints, prompts, etc; or by assigning a “leader” among group members who is conscious with the socially shared metacognition and has ability to pose a metacognitive message in appropriate time points to promote/ change/ or interrupt group discussion.